What is freedom?

Aspiring to be free, probably, each of us. That is, independent of the fact that it aggravates, makes it difficult to act, oppresses. All this happens at a subconscious level. Frequently, the individual himself is not fully aware of what freedom is, although it tends towards it. Scientists and philosophers, writers and politicians give different definitions of this word. It is understood that the degree of freedom depends on the person himself, and on the society in which he lives.

General definition of freedom

The concept in various sciences (ethics, philosophy, law) is interpreted differently. But basically, freedom is understood as an idea that reflects a person’s attitude to his actions: he himself defines them, and they are not conditioned by any natural, interpersonal, social, individual factors. Given the seeming difficulty of understanding the above definition, it is possible to formulate more simply: it is the absence of any dependence laid down in the framework of the moral and legal laws of the existing modern society — that is freedom.

Scientific definitions

In philosophy, this is an opportunity for a person to manifest his own will, based on the awareness of the laws of society and nature.

In law, this is a legally justified possibility of human behavior (for example, freedom of speech). Thus, in the French Declaration of Rights (1789), the concept was interpreted as an opportunity to do everything that would not harm another person. And Kant pointed out that a person is then only free when he obeys not the other person, but the law and the rules, which are binding for all.

In economics, it is the freedom to carry out any activity that includes the right to choose, and the risk and responsibility associated with it. Here we can speak, for example, of a planned economy, as a method that infringes economic freedom, in comparison with liberal capitalism.

Initial need and end goal

Every person is born free. This is his inalienable right of origin. In the process of life in society, the individual becomes enslaved, loses the inner sense of freedom, becomes dependent on someone and something. Therefore, one of the main goals of the development of mankind is the acquisition of freedom, liberation from fetters, which are attached to idols and clans, to vulgarity and the future.Perhaps, speaking of what freedom is, one can imply both the original human right and the ultimate goal of the development of society.

Absolute freedom

Of course, in the ordinary life of a person it can not exist. After all, even an old hermit, seemingly detached from the mortal world, is forced to dress and somehow get food and firewood for heating in winter. And even more so - the usual average citizen who lives in society and is not free from it. But in the general philosophical understanding of this word, absolute freedom is a certain ideal, goal, idea, towards which progressive humanity strives (or should direct) its thoughts. That unattainable, to which it is necessary to designate the desire of social thought. That border of a legal field, having reached which, the person will feel the maximum independence. So absolute freedom is a completely abstract concept.

Relative understanding

Freedom, like everything else in this world (according to Einstein's theory), is a very relative concept. For example, in early childhood, starting to become aware of themselves, the child is defined as being dependent (on the will of parents, orders of teachers, and the like), and therefore not free.The child dreams of becoming an adult in order to gain the desired freedom: not to go to school and not to learn lessons, not to listen to parents and not go to bed at a certain time. The hour comes when the desired becomes valid. It seems that here it is - the freedom that was dreamed of! But no, a certain new period of life brings with it new restrictions on freedom (work, birth of children, family, study at the institute) and dependence. It turns out that in the adult state a person is even more dependent, and, therefore, less free.

Parable about freedom

A savage sitting under a palm tree and eating a banana was somehow asked: why does he not organize a banana plantation, then he will not grow a lot of bananas and sell them for export, receiving a lot of money, then he will not hire workers to work instead . “Why do I need all this?” The free savage answered. "And you will do nothing, sit and bask in the sun, chew a banana." "And I, in fact, are doing this now."

From the above example, we can conclude that one person will be able to talk about his freedom, and the other will not feel that way in the same situation. Roughly speaking, the fact that there is freedom for one, for the other - will not be.

Manifestations of human freedom

But if we drop philosophical terms, an individual may have several real freedoms.

  1. Physical: go where you want; do what you want (under the criminal and state laws, of course); work where you like.
  2. Spiritual: the ability to express what he thinks; perceive the world as he understands it.
  3. National: the ability to consider themselves part of their people, the right to live with their people.
  4. State: choose a country and government under whose authority a person would like to live.

What gives freedom

Undoubtedly, the feeling of one’s own freedom gives a person a lot of advantages. It becomes easier to breathe, live, work. From everything you start to experience pleasure and moral satisfaction. There is a feeling of being full, the ability to be realized in society, to take a worthy place there. A non-free person, on the contrary, feels a sense of constant moral oppression, imperfection, disorder. Probably, this happens because freedom is an innate feeling embedded in our thought process.



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